FPGAs have a remarkable role in embedded system development due to their capability to start system software development simultaneously with hardware, enable system performance simulations at a very early phase of the development, and allow various system trials and design iterations before finalizing the system architecture.
Contemporary FPGAs have ample logic gates and RAM blocks to implement complex digital computations. FPGAs can be used to implement any logical function that an ASIC can perform. The ability to update the functionality after shipping, partial re-configuration of a portion of the design and the low non-recurring engineering costs relative to an ASIC design (notwithstanding the generally higher unit cost), offer advantages for many applications.
Some FPGAs have analog features in addition to digital functions. The most common analog feature is a programmable slew rate on each output pin, allowing the engineer to set low rates on lightly loaded pins that would otherwise ring or couple unacceptably, and to set higher rates on heavily loaded high-speed channels that would otherwise run too slowly. Also common are quartz-crystal oscillator driver circuitry, on-chip resistance-capacitance oscillators, and phase-locked loops with embedded voltage-controlled oscillators used for clock generation and management as well as for high-speed serializer-deserializer (SERDES) transmit clocks and receiver clock recovery. Fairly common are differential comparators on input pins designed to be connected to differential signaling channels. A few mixed signal FPGAs have integrated peripheral analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and digital-to-analog converters (DACs) with analog signal conditioning blocks allowing them to operate as a system-on-a-chip (SoC). Such devices blur the line between an FPGA, which carries digital ones and zeros on its internal programmable interconnect fabric, and field-programmable analog array (FPAA), which carries analog values on its internal programmable interconnect fabric.
In 2012 the coarse-grained architectural approach was taken a step further by combining the logic blocks and interconnects of traditional FPGAs with embedded microprocessors and related peripherals to form a complete \"system on a programmable chip\". This work mirrors the architecture created by Ron Perloff and Hanan Potash of Burroughs Advanced Systems Group in 1982 which combined a reconfigurable CPU architecture on a single chip called the SB24. Examples of such hybrid technologies can be found in the Xilinx Zynq-7000 all Programmable SoC, which includes a 1.0 GHz dual-core ARM Cortex-A9 MPCore processor embedded within the FPGA's logic fabric or in the Altera Arria V FPGA, which includes an 800 MHz dual-core ARM Cortex-A9 MPCore. The Atmel FPSLIC is another such device, which uses an AVR processor in combination with Atmel's programmable logic architecture. The Microsemi SmartFusion devices incorporate an ARM Cortex-M3 hard processor core (with up to 512 kB of flash and 64 kB of RAM) and analog peripherals such as a multi-channel analog-to-digital converters and digital-to-analog converters to their flash memory-based FPGA fabric.
To simplify the design of complex systems in FPGAs, there exist libraries of predefined complex functions and circuits that have been tested and optimized to speed up the design process. These predefined circuits are commonly called intellectual property (IP) cores, and are available from FPGA vendors and third-party IP suppliers. They are rarely free, and typically released under proprietary licenses. Other predefined circuits are available from developer communities such as OpenCores (typically released under free and open source licenses such as the GPL, BSD or similar license), and other sources. Such designs are known as \"open-source hardware.\"
FPGAs originally began as competitors to CPLDs to implement glue logic for printed circuit boards. As their size, capabilities, and speed increased, FPGAs took over additional functions to the point where some are now marketed as full systems on chips (SoCs). Particularly with the introduction of dedicated multipliers into FPGA architectures in the late 1990s, applications which had traditionally been the sole reserve of digital signal processor hardware (DSPs) began to incorporate FPGAs instead.
The primary differences between complex programmable logic devices (CPLDs) and FPGAs are architectural. A CPLD has a comparatively restrictive structure consisting of one or more programmable sum-of-products logic arrays feeding a relatively small number of clocked registers. As a result, CPLDs are less flexible, but have the advantage of more predictable timing delays and a higher logic-to-interconnect ratio. FPGA architectures, on the other hand, are dominated by interconnect. This makes them far more flexible (in terms of the range of designs that are practical for implementation on them) but also far more complex to design for, or at least requiring more complex electronic design automation (EDA) software. In practice, the distinction between FPGAs and CPLDs is often one of size as FPGAs are usually much larger in terms of resources than CPLDs. Typically only FPGAs contain more complex embedded functions such as adders, multipliers, memory, and serializer/deserializers. Another common distinction is that CPLDs contain embedded flash memory to store their configuration while FPGAs usually require external non-volatile memory (but not always). When a design requires simple instant-on (logic is already configured at power-up) CPLDs are generally preferred. For most other applications FPGAs are generally preferred. Sometimes both CPLDs and FPGAs are used in a single system design. In those designs, CPLDs generally perform glue logic functions, and are responsible for \"booting\" the FPGA as well as controlling reset and boot sequence of the complete circuit board. Therefore, depending on the application it may be judicious to use both FPGAs and CPLDs in a single design.
The ISE Design Suite: System Edition builds on top of the Embedded Edition by adding on System Generator for DSP. System Generator for DSP is the industry's leading high-level tool for designing high-performance DSP systems using AMD programmale devices, providing system modeling and automatic code generation from Simulink and MATLAB (The MathWorks, Inc.)
Northrop Grumman Mission Systems sector is seeking a Digital Engineer, Embedded Software Engineer to join our diverse and talented Digital Technology team in the design, implementation, and integration of real-time embedded software & VHDL coding for our next generation Embedded GPS/Inertial Navigation System. Development performed at our Woodland Hills, CA site.
Designed to accompany ECE 2700. Covers design of digital systems with discrete and programmable logic devices. Includes the use of CAD tools for system design and verification. Software fee of $10 applies. Lab access fee of $45 for computers applies.
Introduces the theory and practice of control systems engineering. Covers modeling in the frequency and time domains, analog and discrete transfer function models, reduction of multiple subsystems, system response specifications, control system characteristics, root locus analysis and design, frequency response analysis and design. Emphasizes computer-aided analysis. Lab access fee of $45 applies.
Presents an introduction to the basic building-blocks and the underlying scientific principles of embedded systems. Covers both the hardware and software aspects of embedded processor architectures and assembly language programming. Develops the theory and technology necessary for the interconnection of devices and systems to microcontrollers by using hardware and software examples and students' projects. Software fee of $10 applies. Lab access fee of $45 for computers applies.
Covers the design and verification of digital systems. Emphasizes hierarchal design principles and the use of programmable logic devices (PLDs). Utilizes modern CAD tools and design languages (VERILOG). Lab access fee of $45 for computers applies.
Covers hands on experiments related to course work, in the area of communication systems and circuits. Includes digital and analog modulation for the baseband and bandpass communications. Provides appropriate wireless communication techniques for modern circuits and applications using mini projects. Lab access fee of $45 applies.
Presents the design of hardware and software required for embedded, real-time systems. Covers types of real-time systems, fuzzy logic, sensors, real-time operating systems, C programming skills, and wireless sensor networks. Lab access fee of $45 for computers applies.
Introduces the theory of digital signal processing and its application to practical problems. Covers spectrum representation, Nyquist sampling, z-transform, discrete Fourier transform, discrete-time Fourier transform, FIR (Finite Impulse Response) and IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) digital filter design. Software fee of $10 applies. Lab access fee of $45 for computers applies.
Focuses on theories and techniques of VLSI design on CMOS technology. Studies the fundamental concepts and structures of designing digital VLSI systems, including CMOS devices and circuits, standard CMOS fabrication processes, CMOS design rules, static and dynamic logic structures, interconnect analysis, CMOS chip layout, simulation and testing, low power techniques, design tools and methodologies, VLSI architecture. Software fee of $10 applies. Lab access fee of $45 for computers applies.
Covers the fundamentals of modern digital wireless communication systems and their applications to modern wireless communication technologies such as 5G NR, MIMO, IEEE 802.11ax (Wi-Fi 6), and broadband satellite communication. Includes digital modulation schemes and their performance analysis in the presence of noise, intersymbol interference (ISI), equalizers, synchronization, multipath fading, spread spectrum, OFDM, multiple access techniques, error control codes, and information theory. Introduces both software and hardware designs. Lab access fee of $45 applies. 59ce067264